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Common-Size Statements and Financial Ratios for Creditors

The company has just approached Linden State Bank requesting a $300,000 loan to strengthen the Cash account and to pay certain pressing short-term obligations. The company’s financial statements for the most recent two years follow:
Modern Building Supply
Comparative Balance Sheet
This Year Last Year
Current assets:
Cash $ 52,000 $ 138,000
Marketable securities 0 18,000
Accounts receivable, net 476,000 294,000
Inventory 934,000 586,000
Prepaid expenses 20,000 24,000
Total current assets 1,482,000 1,060,000
Plant and equipment, net 1,743,484 1,587,082
Total assets $ 3,225,484 $ 2,647,082
Liabilities and Stockholders Equity
Current liabilities $ 812,000 $ 431,000
Bonds payable, 9% 601,000 601,000
Total liabilities 1,413,000 1,032,000
Stockholders equity:
Preferred stock, $25 par, 7% 382,500 382,500
Common stock, $10 par 512,000 512,000
Retained earnings 917,984 720,582
Total stockholders equity 1,812,484 1,615,082
Total liabilities and stockholders equity $ 3,225,484 $ 2,647,082
Modern Building Supply
Comparative Income Statement and Reconciliation
This Year Last Year
Sales $ 5,018,000 $ 4,364,000
Cost of goods sold 3,869,000 3,433,000
Gross margin 1,149,000 931,000
Selling and administrative expenses 643,000 544,000
Net operating income 506,000 387,000
Interest expense 54,090 54,090
Net income before taxes 451,910 332,910
Income taxes (30%) 135,573 99,873
Net income 316,337 233,037
Dividends paid:
Preferred dividends 26,775 26,775
Common dividends 92,160 71,680
Total dividends paid 118,935 98,455
Net income retained 197,402 134,582
Retained earnings, beginning of year 720,582 586,000
Retained earnings, end of year $ 917,984 $ 720,582
During the past year, the company has expanded the number of lines that it carries in order to stimulate sales and increase profits. It has also moved aggressively to acquire new customers. Sales terms are 2/10, n/30. All sales are on account.
Assume that the following ratios are typical of companies in the building supply industry:
Current ratio 2.5
Acid-test ratio 1.2
Average collection period 18 days
Average sale period 50 days
Debt-to-equity ratio 0.75
Times interest earned 6.0
Return on total assets 10 %
Price-earnings ratio 9
Linden State Bank is uncertain whether the loan should be made. To assist it in making a decision, you have been asked to compute the following amounts and ratios for both this year and last year:
a. Working capital. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
This year Last year
Working capital $ $
b. Current ratio. (Round your answers to 2 decimal places.)
This year Last year
Current ratio
c. Acid-test ratio. (Round your answers to 2 decimal places.)
This year Last year
Acid-test ratio
Average collection period. (The accounts receivable at the beginning of last year totaled $256,000.) (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answers to 1 decimal place. Use 365 days in a year.)
This year Last year
Average collection period days days
e. Average sale period. (The inventory at the beginning of last year totaled $512,000.) (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answers to 1 decimal place. Use 365 days in a year.)
This year Last year
Average sale period days days
f. Debt-to-equity ratio. (Round your answers to 2 decimal places.)
This year Last year
Debt-to-equity ratio
g. Times interest earned. (Round your answers to 1 decimal place.)
This year Last year
Times interest earned
2. For both this year and last year:
Present the balance sheet in common-size form. (Round your answers to 1 decimal place. Leave no cells blank – be certain to enter “0” wherever required. Omit the “%” sign in your response.)
Modern Building Supply
Common-Size Balance Sheets
This Year Last Year
Current assets:
Cash % %
Marketable securities
Accounts receivable, net
Prepaid expenses
Total current assets
Plant and equipment, net
Total assets % %
Liabilities and Stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities % %
Bonds payable, 9%
Total liabilities
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $25 par, 7%
Common stock, $10 par
Retained earnings
Total stockholders’ equity
Total liabilities and equity % %
Present the income statement in common-size form down through net income. (Input all amounts as positive values. Round your answers to 1 decimal place. Omit the “%” sign in your response.)
Modern Building Supply
Common-Size Income Statements
This Year Last Year
Sales % %
Cost of goods sold
Gross margin
Selling and administrative expenses
Net operating income
Interest expense
Net income before taxes
Income taxes
Net income % %


Paper details In Assignment 2, we will explore how city governments are addressing climate change with local climate action plans and city greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories of four major US cities – Portland, Denver, Boston and New York. The Boswell et al chapter on “Local Climate Action Plans” is a helpful resource for navigating local climate action plans, so make sure you read this. Then, read through the four cities’ climate home pages and climate action plans at a brisk pace (review, skim, scan). After you review them all, you are to select one of these cities and write an essay – details below.

City of Portland Climate Action Home Page (Links to an external site.) and Portland’s 2015 Climate Action Plan (Links to an external site.).
City of Denver Climate Home Page (Links to an external site.) and the City and County of Denver Climate Action Plan (Links to an external site.).
Boston’s Climate Action Home Page (Links to an external site.) and Boston 2019 Climate Action Plan Update. (Links to an external site.)
OneNYC 2050 Home Page (Links to an external site.) and A Livable Climate Report (Links to an external site.).
Optional (helpful) article: How can cities plan for climate change? New York shows the way (Links to an external site.).

While you are skimming and scanning, pay attention to and take note of the answers to the questions below. Your answers to these questions are to be integrated into a critical analysis essay focusing on one of these cities and their climate action plan and approach to reducing and monitoring GHG emissions.

What is the GHG reduction target that this city has adopted? Over what baseline (year)? by when (year)?
What are the sources or sectors identified as causes of GHG emissions? This information may be found in a graph (pie chart, bar graph) or in the text of the Plan.
What are 3 main strategies, goals, actions, initiatives (these terms may be different in each plan so clearly state) the City sets in their climate action plan? There are usually many, so select three primary “goals” and answer the following questions related to those you focus on:
What are pathways for GHG reduction identified by this city to address each “goal?”
How do they evaluate whether or not they are making progress towards these strategies and goals? What are the metrics used to monitor progress? This question is most relevant to this course as it is about assessment, measurement, so pay attention to how they are measuring and communicating progress towards reducing GHG emissions.
Critical analysis essay guidelines:

2-3 pages, double spaced, 12 point font
MS Word or PDF document must be uploaded to this Canvas assignment submission portal.
General, suggested format is approximately 5 paragraphs (it may be more if necessary), where:
Paragraph 1 is the introductory paragraph introducing the Plan you have examined, some key features of this Plan and the City, and introduces what aspects you will write about/critique in this essay.
Paragraphs 2, 3, 4 comprise the main body of the essay. Each paragraph should relate to the aspects you introduced in your first introductory paragraph.
Paragraph 5 is the concluding paragraph which concludes with a summary statement and insights about the effectiveness, or not, of the Plan.
See below the Grading Rubric for this assignment. Please note that for full credit, write a complete response in accordance with the guidelines above and offer a unique critical insights and analysis. Student will receive partial credit if their response is not related to course materials and is incomplete based on the guidelines above. Student will receive no credit if their work is not original, or plagiarized, or if the specific question was not answered directly.

Climate planning and GHGs
Climate planning and GHGs
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAdopted GHG reduction target statement
6 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSources or sectors of GHG emissions
6 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeThree main strategies/goals/actions/initiatives
6 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGHG reduction pathways for each strategy
6 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis of evaluation techniques/metrics
15 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEssay structure and flow
6 pts
Total Points: 45

artPages 3–Examples: you need 10 examples of your medium…you need TEN [10] o need TEN [10] of them and they MUST have pictures with citations under the pictures, following APA citing guidelines and then followed by a paragraph or two of what the example is, its’ history, etc.  All ten must be in chronological or historical order.These examples if not cited, need to be. )


This program provides practice with global and static variables. In real-life program-
ming you may choose to define these variables differently.

Write a program statistics.c that takes as command-line arguments a sequence of words, and
then asks the user for the name of an output file. The program prints in the file the lowercase form
of each word, its length, and the cumulative length so far. After doing that for all words, the program
prints each letter of the alphabet that was included in these words followed by the number of times the
letter appeared. You may assume that the user will type only letters (no punctuations or numbers).

( ?)$ a.out Peter Piper picked a peck 
Output file: output1
( ?)$ more output1
peter: length=5 total=5

piper: length=5 total=10
picked: length=6 total=16
a: length=1 total=17
peck: length=4 total=21
Letters: a:1 c:2 d:1 e:5 i:2 k:2 p:5 r:2 t:1
 ( ?)$ a.out aBrAcAdAbRa

Output file: output2( ?)$ 
more output2
abracadabra: length=11 total=11 
Letters: a:5 b:2 c:1 d:1 r:2
 ( ?)$ a.outOutput file: output3
( ?)$ more output3


( ?)$

The program should use the following variables:

int letterFrequencies[26] – a global array that tracks the number of times each letter
has appeared so far. It will be used by the functions wordStats and printFrequencies.
This variable is already defined for you in myFunctions.c

static int cumulativeLength–astaticvariabledefinedinsidethefunctionwordStats
that tracks the cumulative length of words so far.

The program should include the following functions. Of these functions, main should be defined in
statistics.c and all other functions should be defined in myFunctions.c

void lowercaseString(char string[])—Convertsallupper-caselettersinstring
to lower case. You can use the same-named function you wrote for the previous homework.

void wordStats(FILE *fp, char string[])

– Prints everything below to the file pointed to by fp.
– Prints string.


–  Printsthelengthofstring.YoucandeterminethelengthbyusingthefunctionstringLen
you wrote for the last homework or the function strlen defined in string.h.

–  Updates and prints the static variable cumulativeLength (see above) that tracks the
cumulative word lengths so far.

–  UpdatesaglobalarrayletterFrequencies(seeabove)thattracksthenumberoftimes
each letter has appeared among the words processed so far.

• void printFrequencies(FILE *fp)

• int

Prints everything below to the output file pointed to by fp.
Checks the global array letterFrequencies, and for each letter from a to z that ap-

peared at least once, prints the number of times it appeared.

main(int argc, char *argv[])

Asks the user for the name of an output file, and opens the file.

For each word in the command line, calls lowercaseString to convert uppercase letter
to lower, and then wordStats to print the word and cumulative lengths in the file, and to
update the number of times each letter appears.

After all words are processed, calls printFrequencies to print the number of time
each seen letter has appeared. 

Scientific Method Matrix

Valid and relevant sociological research
is dependent upon a commitment to applying the scientific method in a
systematic and organized way in order to ensure maximum objectivity and
consistency in research. Complete the following matrix based on a social
problem of your choice. The matrix will serve as a guide for creating a
preliminary plan for the basic steps of the scientific method.

Scientific Method Matrix

Social problem

Identify a social problem of your

Problem definition

problem statement is often written as a research question. Limit the problem
statement to one sentence. 

Is going to college worth the time and money?

Operational definition

operational definitions for two abstract concepts in the problem statement
that you believe are measurable and subject to change under different
conditions. Create the operational definitions so another researcher can understand
and assess your definition of the abstract concepts. Limit your definitions
to one sentence each.

For purposes of this study, schooling
is defined as the ­­­­number of completed grade levels in public education
institutions. For purposes of this study, pay
off is defined as an increase in incomelevel.

Literature review

Conduct a short literature review of one
peer-reviewed article pertaining to the chosen social problem. Include an APA
citation of the article.

Speculative hypothesis

a speculative hypothesis statement about the relationship between the
operationally defined variables. Suggest how one variable is expected to
influence the other. The hypothesis must clearly identify which variable you
believe will predict or cause a change in the other—this is the independent
variable—and which variable’s actions or change will be dependent on change
in the other—this is the dependent variable.

Independent variable

the independent variable (IV), which is the variable that you hypothesize
will cause or influence the other variable.

Dependent variable

the dependent variable (DV), which is the variable that you hypothesize will
change due to the influence or presence of the independent variable.


the hypothesis in the form of an if–then statement.

If the grade level of schooling is related to the level of income, then a
change in the grade levels of schooling (IV) will affect a change in the
level of income (DV).

Major research design

the major research design—including the interview survey, questionnaire
survey, observation, experiment, and existing sources—you would use to
collect and analyze your research data and information. Explain why you
believe this is the best research design for your research problem.


Suggest a
preliminary conclusion to the problem based on the author or researcher’s
information or results in the one literature review article. Limit the
conclusion to one paragraph.

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