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Paper details 1 B.F. Skinner believed, first, that a science of behaviour should be based only on results obtained using the conditioning chamber he developed to study operant conditioning (that most other researchers called the ‘Skinner box’) and, second, that Pavlovian conditioning was of relatively little interest because it applied only to responses by the autonomic system.

i. What important discoveries in the learned behaviour of animals were indeed obtained from research using Skinner boxes?

ii. What important discoveries in the learned behaviour of animals were made using other kinds of methods?

iii. What important results showed that Skinner was wrong about Pavlovian conditioning?

2. The Rescorla-Wagner model provides a very parsimonious yet powerful explanation of many aspects of simple associative learning.

i. How does the model describe the learning that occurs during extinction?

ii. What does it say about the nature of extinction after partial reinforcement versus continuous reinforcement?

iii. Describe another phenomenon related to the extinction of responding that the model does not predict and discuss what this means for the model’s treatment of extinction.

iv. Describe a novel prediction that the model made about extinction that has been shown to be correct.

3. Justin walks his dog, Ava, twice a day. She jumps up on him excitedly whenever she sees him pick up her lead before he takes her for a walk.

i. Describe how you could test whether Ava’s behaviour has been acquired through Pavlovian conditioning or instrumental conditioning.

ii. One evening, Justin goes to walk Ava without knowing that his daughter just brought Ava back from a long walk 5 min earlier. Justin is surprised because, on this occasion, Ava doesn’t react by jumping up when he picks up her lead. What might this tell us about whether Ava’s behaviour is based on S-R (stimulus-response) or S-S (stimulus-stimulus) learning? Explain your answer.

iii. If, after he had been walking Ava on lead for several weeks, Justin also started attaching a light to her collar before each walk, would Ava also acquire the same excited response when she saw Justin pick up the light? Explain your answer.

iv. If Justin had only used the lead to walk Ava on one of their daily outings (and had walked her without a lead on the other outing each day), how would this affect her reactions to the lead? Explain why you think this would happen.

Intervention Proposal

Paper details Develop a 5–7-page proposal directed to organizational leadership for a diversity intervention to address performance and job satisfaction.

An organizational leader who hopes to be successful must understand the motivations of his or her employees. Development of staff requires ongoing employee training. To accomplish this ongoing process includes conducting training needs analyses, identifying competencies, and focusing on organizational learning. It also includes the environmental conditions for motivating workers and leveraging the strengths of diversity. This process serves as a crucial foundation for organizational effectiveness.

How can we understand why people do what they do; what drives them? How might we influence these motives in a manner productive for both the individual and the organization? Consider the importance not only of knowing how to understand human motivation, but of knowing how to utilize what we learn effectively.

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

Competency 3: Analyze the tenets of ethical standards and diversity in the field of industrial and organizational psychology.
Integrate professional standards for ethics and diversity into a proposal for intervention.
Integrate professional standards for ethics and diversity into an evaluation plan.
Competency 4: Apply theory and research to different specialization areas within industrial and organizational psychology.
Apply foundational theory and concepts to explain the rationale for methodology.
Apply foundational theory and concepts to design an intervention.
Apply foundational theory and concepts to design an evaluation plan.
Competency 5: Apply critical thinking to evaluate current trends and practices in the field of industrial and organizational psychology.
Apply critical thinking to develop probing questions.
Apply critical thinking to anticipate outcomes of an intervention.
Competency 6: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of the psychological professions.
Write an organized and professional proposal that provides appropriate context for the target audience.
Use correct APA format and style

As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

How is leadership different in multicultural contexts?
What do you think companies should do to prepare employees for leadership positions in other countries?
Are there leadership styles that work best with certain cultures?
Are there leadership styles that do not work well with certain cultures?
What leadership styles transcend multiple generations?

I/O experts are often expected to develop proposals for interventions to address workplace needs. For this assessment, develop a proposal to leadership for a diversity intervention to address performance and job satisfaction, based upon the following scenario:

Company G is a large manufacturing company with 5,000 employees, all based in the United States. The company also operates globally and has customers in Europe and Asia. You were hired as the consultant to assist Company G in becoming more culturally sensitive and to leverage the advantages of the diversity with its employees. The demographics of the company include both males and females. Although males outnumber females, females are a growing demographic. The company’s ethnic demographics include U.S.-born Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics. There are also a small number of management employees from India and Asia, all who are educated and speak English. The company recently hired about 800 workers who are new immigrants from Serbia. Most of these new workers are in the same area of the organization. The organization has operated for 100 years and has workers of all ages from traditionals (World War 2) and baby boomers to GenX and millennials.

The leaders believe there is a relationship between diversity and organizational effectiveness and are looking for increases in overall performance and job satisfaction as a result of the diversity intervention you design. Since organizations are complex social systems, there are multiple successful paths (equifinality) to an outcome. What the leaders are looking for is a successful path that appeals best to them.

Make sure that the information that you present is organized and professional, and provides appropriate context for the target audience. Your proposal must include:

The background questions you need to ask leaders for clarification. This is the most critical aspect of creating a proposal. If you do not ask the right questions, you will not get the information to develop an effective intervention. This should be a comprehensive section, with at least one page of probing questions. Be sure to consider:
What kind of specific background information would you need to have?
What are potential obstacles or existing issues that should be addressed?
The type of methodology you would use to collect data on the organization (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed.) Explain the rationale for the methodology you would choose and provide two scholarly references.
The type of intervention you would likely design and the rationale for the design, based upon foundational theories and current practices in the I/O field. Include two references from scholarly literature.
An explanation of professional standards for ethics and diversity for the intervention and evaluation plan. Include one scholarly reference.
The expected results from the intervention.
A plan to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention.

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