For each question, determine which inference procedure is appropriate (perform hypothesis test or construct a confidence interval), and identify the parameter of interest (p, p1 – p2, µ, µ1 – µ2, µd). 1. What percentage of college students engage in underage drinking in their freshman year?Test or Interval Parameter2. What is the average change in a person’s heart rate when comparing measurements from before and after a scary scene in a horror film?Test or Interval Parameter3. What is the average number of siblings of all Penn State students?Test or Interval Parameter4. Is there a difference in the percent of college freshman and college sophomores who engage in underage drinking? Test or Interval Parameter 5. On average, are college graduates exiting school with a GPA above 3.0?Test or Interval Parameter6. Is the percent of sophomores living on campus at Penn State different than 30%? Test or Interval Parameter7. Is there a difference in the percentage of season games of their favorite sport a fan attends based on if their favorite sport is baseball or basketball?Test or Interval Parameter

## for this project, I will be generating the data that I will use to answer

Question for this project, I will be generating the data that I will use to answer two research questions of my own choosing.For now, i will only be asking the questions, generating data, discussing the collectionmethods, and presenting the data in various forms.Research Topic 1: “We will examine the average ________________________.”Choose something that can be measured or counted (so that the resulting data is quantitative.) Yourquestion should be about a population of which you can take a sample. Avoid using survey questions,since that is one of the options for Topic 2. The question can be as serious or silly as you like; the bestprojects ask questions that you genuinely want to know the answer to. You can also consider basingyour question off of another class you are taking. You may use or modify the examples below, butalmost any topic can be usable.Some examples: Length of leaves on a specific type of plant Price of a cheeseburger at different restaurants Weight of eggs of a specific brand Total score in a specific game Speed of cars that pass through a particular intersection Number of pages in a particular type of bookResearch Topic 2: “We will examine the relationship between _________ and __________.”In this part you can either survey people online (via social media, or some special interest website) ORyou can travel through your neighborhood and observe homes (or something similar). (You do NOT needto go door-to-door asking people for information!) Choose two variables that can each have twodifferent values (typically, but not always, “yes” or “no”). For each person or home surveyed, make sureyou record the two variables’ values together. (An online poll will probably need four options, for eachcombination of possible answers.) It is NOT enough to take two separate surveys.Some examples: Whether or not a person drank coffee that day, and whether or not they ate breakfast Gender, and whether or not they exercise daily Age category (16-23 or 24 ) and whether they prefer online classes or face-to-face Born in the US or born abroad, and preferred spelling of gray/grey Whether or not a front door is white, and whether or not it has a decoration on it Whether or not a house has a home security sign, and whether it is single-story or more.

## -The manufacturer of a refrigerator system for beer kegs produces

Question

-The manufacturer of a refrigerator system for beer kegs produces refrigerators that are supposed to maintain a true mean temperature, μ, of 48°F, ideal for a certain type of German pilsner. The owner of the brewery does not agree with the refrigerator manufacturer, and claims he can prove that the true mean temperature is incorrect. What are the hypothesis to be tested? -H0: μ = 48°, Ha: μ ≠ 48° -H0: μ ≠ 48°, Ha: μ = 48° -H0: μ ≤ 48°, Ha: μ

## In one study of smokers who tried to quit smoking with nicotine patch therapy,

Question In one study of smokers who tried to quit smoking with nicotine patch therapy, 36 were smoking one year after treatment and 31 were not smoking one year after the treatment. Use a 0.10 significance level to test the claim that among smokers who try to quit with nicotine patch therapy, the majority are smoking one year after the treatment. Do these results suggest that the nicotine patch therapy is not effective? Identify the test statistic for this hypothesis test.The test statistic for this hypothesis test is _____ (Round to two decimal places as needed.)Identify the P-value for this hypothesis test. The P-value for this hypothesis test is ____ (Round to three decimal places as needed.)

## Classify the conclusion of the significance test as a Type I error, a Type II

Question Classify the conclusion of the significance test as a Type I error, a Type II error, or No error. In the past, the mean lifetime for a certain type of flashlight battery has been 9.5 hours. The manufacturer has introduced a change in the production method and wants to perform a significance test to determine whether the mean lifetime has increased as a result. The hypotheses are: H0: μ = 9.5 hours vs. Ha: μ > 9.5 hoursSuppose that the results of the sample lead to rejection of the null hypothesis. Classify that conclusion as a Type I error, a Type II error, or a correct decision, if in fact the mean running time has not increased.Professor has a magic tool that accurately measures level of focus. She carries out a test on whether drinking Red Bull improves students’ focus on studies. From her introductory statistics course, 16 students are randomly chosen. First, they do not drink Red Bull and she evaluates their level of focus with the tool. After a week, the students drink Red Bull, and their level of focus is measured with the tool again. The tool scores level of focus, and higher scores indicate better focus. Both population scores are assumed to be normally distributed. Which of the following tests she should use?One-sample z-testTwo-sample t-testChi-square test of goodness-of-fitPaired t-test

## Matched pairs or independent/separate samples?

For

Question Matched pairs or independent/separate samples?

For each of the prompts below, decide whether the parameter of interest is a mean difference (matched pairs, ) or a difference in means (independent samples, ).1. Students want to know if it matters where they have their cell phone screen repaired. A sample of eight cell phones with broken screens was obtained. For each phone, an estimate for the screen repair in U.S. dollars ($) was obtained from a local store, where the phone would be dropped off and picked up, and from an on-line merchant, where the phone needs to be shipped to a national chain and shipped back. Your goal is determining if, on average, the estimate in dollars for the total repair from the on-line merchant is more (possibly because of the added cost of shipping) than the estimate from a local store.Identify the: unit/case: parameter:2. A study wants to determine how free Wi-Fi affects data usage on a long-distance bus ride. A group of nine busses traveling from State College to New York City were randomly assigned to give free Wi-Fi to passengers and another nine busses traveling the same route were randomly assigned to offer Wi-Fi for a one-time charge for its passengers. The study measured the amount of data used, in gigabytes, on each bus for the one trip to find out the average difference in the amount of data used based on if Wi-Fi is free or a paid service.Identify the: unit/case parameter: 3. A family with two siblings, an older brother and a younger sister, goes to Six Flags to enjoy a day of rides. After each ride, the grandfather asks the older brother and younger sister to rate the ride on a scale of 1 (hated it) to 5 (loved it). The grandfather, a retired statistics professor, wants to know if the rating from the brother is lower, on average, than the younger sister. Identify the: unit/case parameter: